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紅酒配紅肉?(二)

上篇把牛腰細分不同部份,依據肉質及肉味濃度,搭配不同紅酒;且大膽提出假如料理方法用上薄切刺身,牛肉用上脂肪比例偏高(BMS 12 級,相等於40%是脂肪)的和牛,可考慮襯上經橡木桶陳釀的白酒。紅肉,不一定配紅酒。近年葡萄酒熱,坊間多少food and wine pairing dinner,扯上品味,沾上洋風;葡萄酒和吃並不是一種生活,而是一股時尚。葡萄酒超然成為一種態度,跨越了一杯含酒精的葡萄汁,說到底不過是一款飲料的身份。餐桌上吃崇洋的味道、唱品味的調,無所謂,覺得好吃好喝便好了。說到吃,亞洲饕客素以什麼都試試知名;說到喝,千年的傳統飲料由茶道數至烈酒、泊來品落地扎根由啤酒至威士忌,不窮選擇。酒食搭配,配對題連線式的建議,難為了勇於嘗「試」的精神,倒是順著亞洲學生考「試」總有標準答案的文化。今天續論紅酒配紅肉,從牛腰移師到牛肋部位,又看近年西餐館新寵牛臉。畢竟到頭來,酒食搭配不過是場找點好東西吃,好東西喝的遊戲。

boneless_ribeye_1_hhwagyu

在牛腰前方的是牛肋,是嗜濃郁肉味的食客的至愛。來自牛肋的牛扒,是眾所周知的肉眼扒(Ribeye)。 肉眼扒,除非標明是Rib Steak,基本連骨割切。肉眼來自微帶運動的上肋部位,較運動量較高的下肋脂肪比例較高,脂肪分佈亦較細密。口感相對牛腰肉較具嚼勁,除香煎外,亦可炭燒。同樣來自牛肋部位的是每隻全牛僅有一塊的橫隔膜腹肉(Hanger Steak),這塊肉吊附於橫隔膜,鄰近側腹橫肌牛扒(Skirt Steak)。聞說這塊牛扒是屠夫至愛,以往較少流出市場,近年成為扒房的新興焦點牛扒。肉味濃,較具嚼勁的牛肋部位,遵從「紅酒丹寧能與紅肉蛋白質結合,從而軟化肉質」的道理最好不過。

丹寧偏高的葡萄酒,丹寧的來源有二:一來自葡萄皮,二來自木桶。來自葡萄皮的丹寧,為整個口腔帶來刺澀的感覺;來自木桶的丹寧,則集中為門牙上下的牙肉帶來刺澀的感覺。這一點冷知識,在酒食搭配的層面上,有助我們依據牛扒煮食的方法,來搭配丹寧相約,但菓香與橡木桶辛香比例不同的葡萄酒。菓花香濃郁而丹寧高的葡萄酒,例如傳統風格的意大利皮埃蒙特(Piemonte)Barolo,襯上簡單兩邊煎煮的肉眼扒,讓肉香添一層新鮮菓香。若煮食方法用上柴火煙醺或炭燒的話,配以橡木桶味道及木桶長年陳釀主導的葡萄酒,如一支西班牙里奧哈(Rioja)Gran Reserva級別的Tempranillo,讓木桶的香料、肉桂、胡椒子,陳年演變的野味、乾菇菌等味道,提昇牛扒的焦香和肉味的複雜性。肉味香濃是牛肋部位的牛扒的特色,配以菓香或橡木香突出的葡萄酒,行得通的道理並不牽強。傳統法式西方料理學中,五大母親汁(mother sauce)之一Espagnole汁,並衍生了不少以酒香作副調的汁醬,以佐扒類主菜,例如Bordelaise,Marchand de Vin,Madeira,Port汁等。以菓香為副調的有Bigarade汁,由酸葡萄汁、橙汁或檸檬汁混進Espagnole濃汁而成。

Ribeye - Shipzeus.com

菓香、酒香、肉香的三角戀,是紅酒配紅肉的主幹。三者之間找到平衡,繼而確保丹寧和肉質之間相輔相承而非互不相讓,這是副軸。玩轉主副二線,拉拉扯扯無非是一場饞嘴的遊戲。闖出熟悉的舊世界酒區耳熟能詳的葡萄品種及經典混釀,亦是一種玩法。近年興起阿根廷牛扒,放眼南半球酒區的作品,能配上肉味香濃的肉眼或橫隔膜腹肉的相應葡萄酒,有智利長時間被誤以為Merlot的Carmenere,阿根廷的Malbec和鳥拉圭的Tannat。

Hanger Steak - vrola.com

牛肋:肉眼、Hanger Steak
特質:脂肪比例中高,肉質具嚼勁,肉味濃香
配酒考慮:以提鮮,軟化較韌肉質,同時顧及醬汁味道為考慮因素為大前提,可選丹寧高,菓花香或橡木桶香奔放的葡萄酒
例子:西班牙支西班牙里奧哈(Rioja)Gran Reserva級別的Tempranillo,意大利皮埃蒙特(Piemonte)Barolo,智利的Carmenere,阿根廷的Malbec和鳥拉圭的Tannat

beef-cheek_destinationfood.com.au

牛臉肉可謂是香港西餐館新寵。這塊慢煮才出真滋味的部分,與牛腰牛柳正好相反,是牛身其中一個最韌,運動量最高的部位。這不難想像,牛吃草嘴嚼的動作,不斷用上的就是這一組肌肉。牛臉肉在香港賣得矜貴,貴為高級西餐館紅酒慢煮主角,但在外國卻是塊多用來做廉宜速食的墨西哥卷餅(Tacos)的牛肉部位。慢煮後的牛面肉,膠質(gelatin)變得軟糯,一為這份主菜帶來討好的質感,二為汁料帶來黏度及濃度。配酒的時候,可留意慢煮用的葡萄酒及香料是什麼,從了解汁醬的酸甜度出發選酒。香港的西餐館常用一般cooking wine,多為簡單且菓香為主的干型葡萄酒,次為軟少見但見於傳統食譜的Port 及Madeira汁。香料方面一般用上八角、肉桂、肉豆蔻等。由於慢煮過的牛面肉肉質冧糯,應避過自身丹寧緊澀的紅酒葡萄,可考慮襯上紅白之間的玫瑰酒(rose),特別是來自風格較嚴肅,味道較聚焦的法國南部Tavel地區的作品。忠心一片紅的可考慮釀自來自法國南部的歌海娜(Grenache)混釀或來自薄若萊(Beaujolais)村庄級或以上的嘉美(Gamay)的紅酒。

牛臉肉
特質:膠質比例高,肉質經慢煮後極腍軟
配酒考慮:以丹寧不掩蓋膠質及腍軟肉質為前提,另考慮汁醬以菓香為主,可選丹寧收斂,菓花香主導的葡萄酒
例子:的法國南部Tavel的玫瑰酒,法國南部的歌海娜(Grenache)混釀,法國薄若萊(Beaujolais)村庄級或以上的嘉美(Gamay)

從紅酒配紅肉,退一步看玫瑰酒或白酒配紅肉。雖則有不同酒區、不同葡萄、不同酒齡選擇,最終還是一場含酒精葡萄汁的遊戲 。不喜歡pairing概念的朋友,嗤鼻謂這是場棟篤笑。見慣不怪,不同道但同是追求吃好些、喝好些之烏眾,便是朋友。紅酒配紅肉,暫且告一段落。酒配食物,卻是一部章回小說。說到麥香和氣泡,講的是啤酒與紅肉的搭配,一個市場營銷還未見大熱的種類。我這位嗜吃之徒近日沉醉於手工啤酒,下周續玩啤酒和食物的遊戲。當「鬼佬涼茶」不只談一場花生和薯片的戀愛,經典派系Ale、Lager 及兩派旗下來自不同國家的門徒Lager、Bitter、Pale Ale、Porter、Pilsner等,講究談上搭配的話,又是一場怎麼樣的遊戲。

圖片內容(由上至下):
無骨肉眼扒
連骨肉眼
橫隔膜腹肉
牛臉肉

願載主場新聞

紅酒配紅肉?(一)

酒食搭配101 :紅酒配紅肉,白酒配白肉。但願酒食搭配就這麼簡單。葡萄酒與美食搭配近年成為大熱,焦點都放在探索亞洲美食與葡萄酒之間的化學作用。亞洲菜系在食材用料、調味汁醬、料理風格上,多樣性較歐陸菜系有過之而無不及。酒食搭配最大的挑戰,在於雙向深入了解葡萄酒及料理。以學習葡萄酒為主軸的大前提下,欲掌握酒食搭配,研習西方料理是打好根基不可或缺的一步。百年累積的經驗,定下了一些經典搭配,一切不止於紅酒配紅肉,相反,一切始於紅酒配紅肉。今天探索最經典的搭配:牛扒和葡萄酒,承上所提同時深入了解兩位主角,先細分看牛體最經典的幾個牛扒來源部位,從常用料理方法、肉質、肉味等作相應考慮;後細分析葡萄酒的主要味感,包括酸度、酒體、單寜、基本味道,把紅酒配牛扒的籠統說法,延伸出具邏輯且具體的搭配。

Tenderloin - cookinglight.timeinc.net

嗜腍嫰肉質的食客,多喜歡點牛腰,來自腰部的牛肉是整個牛體數一數二運動量最低的部位,肉質軟腍之餘,相對脂肪量也較高。舉例日本A5和牛,達BMS(Beef Marbling Score)等級最高級12級的牛柳,脂肪量達40%;以美國USDA最高等級Prime等級為例,該等級牛聊脂肪量達10至13%(相等於BMS 4至5級)。牛柳入口即溶,與其脂肪量有關。牛腰細分為兩大熱門牛柳來源部分:牛後腰裡脊部分(Tenderloin)及前腰部分(Short Loin)。黏附在牛後腰脊骨左右兩旁的Tenderloin,每頭牛有兩條。一條Tenderloin的頭尾尖幼兩端,謂Filet Mignon,中間較粗圓的部分,稱為Chateaubriand。兩者比較的話,以Filet Mignon於肉味及軟嫩度上較優勝。來自Tenderloin的牛柳,多不連帶牛骨。 這兩塊牛扒以肉味及腍度並重,深得食客歡心。來自牛腰的牛柳,配酒時需小心所選紅酒摧垮幼嫰肉質,紅酒味道及濃度亦不宜過份奔放,以防掩蓋相較含蓄的肉味。「紅酒丹寧能與紅肉蛋白質結合,從而軟化肉質」的道理,在為牛腰肉配酒的時候,不太合用,反之該留神葡萄酒風格,宜選舊世界酒區的作品,較含蓄的菓味、較突出的礦物味、來自法國橡木桶的辛香,比較適宜。葡萄品種方面,宜選葡萄皮丹寧含量較小的品種如黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)。年份宜選成熟年份,好讓陳年後演變出來的味道如野味肉香、乾香菇、雪松香,帶出牛腰肉的肉味。

BMS12 Gion Kobe Wagyu Beef Sashimi - kyotofoodie.com

值得一提的是,愛好日本A5,BMS等級達12級薄切和牛的食客,宜踏出紅酒配紅肉的傳統想法。肉味與口感皆極度細膩的薄切吃法,重點在於享受入口即溶,帶濃濃牛油香的脂肪。襯以酒體飽滿,且經橡木桶陳釀的白酒最好不過,酒精較高、酸度適中、帶來自木桶的鮮牛油香的勃艮地南部伯恩丘(Cote de Beaune)Village級或Grand Cru級的莎當妮,或美國索諾瑪(Sonoma)區的莎當妮是不錯的選擇。

Porterhouse - deandeluca.com

New York Strip Loin - costco.ca

前腰部(Short Loin)的是經典牛扒T-bone的來源部位,也是近是愈受歡迎的Porterhouse牛排,及美國紐約著名扒房Delmonico的原創New York Strip Loin牛排的來源部位。這三塊牛排多連骨侍用,肉味較濃,不少食客愛其恰如混合西冷嚼勁及肉味,與牛裡脊幼嫰肉質兩者的好處。丹寧細膩如幼粒依舊是重點,但菓香及味道上不妨作較大膽嘗試,梅樂(Merlot)、老藤仙芬黛(Zinfandel)單品西拉(Syrah/Shiraz)或西拉混釀(Shiraz-Grenache blend),是相當不錯的選擇。後者猶配菓香或辛料香味突出的汁料如紅酒汁、黑椒汁。如搭上青蘆筍或點上法式貝亞恩汁(Bearnaise)或來自阿根廷草綠色的Chimichurri汁的話,可襯以帶草本味的品麗珠(Cabernet Franc)或年輕但來自較弱及偏涼年份的左岸波爾多,體驗葡萄酒與汁醬的草青味互相輝映。

Sirloin - countryvalley.co.uk

culotte_strip6

牛上腰對於一般食客來說,聽上來有點陌生,但若提到西冷(Sirloin)牛扒的話,不講自通。西冷牛扒來自牛上腰,因接近運動量高的後腿部位,屬腰部牛扒中最具嚼勁的部位,肉味亦相對最濃香。Culotte Steak是這部份最受追捧的部份,來自牛上腰頂部開端的一塊肉。配酒大可選擇菓香較奔放、味道較濃郁的新世界葡萄酒;酒體飽滿、厚醇濃郁的葡萄酒,特別是經長年法國橡木桶陳釀的葡萄酒,演化出來的辛料及木香,皆能提昇整個食味體驗,特別是經木屑煙薰處理的牛扒。

牛腰

牛後腰/牛裡脊:Filet Mignon, Chateaubriand
特質:脂肪比例高,肉質幼嫰,肉味較含蓄
配酒考慮:以不掩蓋肉味,不摧垮幼嫰肉質為大前提,宜選成熟年份、來自舊世界酒區、味道複雜但不過份奔放、丹寧中等幼細的葡萄酒,脂肪量偏高的牛柳可配高酒精度、橡木桶味突出的白酒
例子:法國勃艮地的莎當妮或黑皮諾、美國索諾瑪(Sonoma)河谷的莎當妮

牛前腰:T-bone, Porterhouse, New York Strip Loin
特質:混合西冷嚼勁及肉味,與牛裡脊幼嫰肉質兩者的好處
配酒:以提鮮,不摧垮幼嫰肉質,同時顧及醬汁味道為考慮因素,可選來自新舊世界酒區,年輕年份菓味鮮香的葡萄酒,丹寧依舊宜偏幼膩
例子:法國隆河區(Rhone)北部西拉單品、南部西拉混釀、美國那帕河谷(Napa)老藤仙芬黛、美國華盛頓州(Washington State)或法國羅亞河谷(Loire)品麗珠、法國波爾多(Bordeaux)左岸較弱及偏涼年份的赤霞珠混釀

牛上腰:Sirloin, Culotte Steak
特質:牛腰最具嚼勁及肉味香濃的牛扒部位
配酒:以提鮮,軟化較韌肉質,同時顧及醬汁味道為考慮因素,可偏向選擇新世界酒區、年輕年份菓味及辛料濃郁的葡萄酒,丹寧中等偏高亦可無不可
例子:澳洲巴羅薩谷(Barossa)的老藤西拉、美國那帕河谷(Napa)高海拔山丘田園出產的赤霞珠(如來自Howell Mountain,Mount Veeder等的作品)、西班牙普理歐拉(Priorat)的赤霞珠或歌海娜(Garnacha)、南非斯特蘭德(Stellenbosch)的波爾多混釀等

本周先吃牛腰,下篇看牛肋及牛面肉,繼續細談葡萄酒搭配,細看來自不同部位的牛扒,在一場 food and wine marriage中,如意郎君是來自什麼地區、生於什麼葡萄品種的佳醇。

圖片內容(由上至下):
Filet Mignon
日本神戶和牛薄切刺身
Porterhouse
A5日本等級的New York Strip Loin
西冷 Sirloin
Culotte Steak

原文初載於主場新聞

Ms M.S.

The juxtaposition of Ms and MS is intentional, in combination they make an accurate reference to only 21 accomplished women in the world to-day. This pair of prima facie identical prefix and suffix is a nature-nurture alignment attained by the resolution and very hard work put in by each and every female individual whom have passed one of the toughest tests in international wine world: Master Sommelier. The Master Sommelier examination is a strenuous triathlon itself, involving three key disciplines in the study of wine and hospitality: theory, tasting and practical service. The lowest pass mark of all modules is 75%, and average annual pass rate fluctuates around a meagre 10%. At present there are 219 Master Sommeliers around the world, among which only 21 of them are women. Today’s post highlights the story of Lindsey Whipple, one of the four newly-minted Master Sommeliers, and the only female, whom have just passed their exams last month in Aspen, Colorado. No doubts her professional story makes the international wine world proud, yet behind all the accolades and achievements, it is the story of a girl born to half a family of Italians all passionate about food, wine and friends; and a journey through which she learns to balance between comradeship and independence, struggles and perseverance, stress and motivation.

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Lindsey had an early start with wine. With half of her family being Italians, Lindsay got used to entertaining friends and families over food and wine every Sunday. At ten or eleven, she started putting away wines in her own closet, and that’d probably be her first wine collection! At university, Lindsey entered United States’ top hospitality school University of Nevada Las Vegas, where she dabbled into the professional world of alcoholic beverages beginning with a semester on distilled spirits. Attending various tastings during university life led her to her first crush, 1985 Chateau Margaux, a sip that pointed her down the road less traveled by. A pursuit in the career field of wine and beverage brought Lindsay to a rotation of restaurant and wine portfolio management roles in Las Vegas and Los Angeles. Over the years she has worked in Las Vegas for restaurant outlets Mark’s, Cut by Wolfgang Puck, and in Los Angeles for Campanile. In 2003, she took her Introductory Sommelier, first step along the ladder that leads towards the esteemed title of Master Sommelier. Over 10 years, she took the other two progressively harder examinations on the way and finally obtained her Master Sommelier accreditation in May 2014.

“Sounds like a pharmacist.” That is Lindsey’s two cents on the role of a sommelier in a restaurant. The concept of a heart-winning sommelier has always been coined as the knowledgable wine person who humbly applies what s/he knows to find the wine that the diner seeks, without superimposing his/her personal preferences and opinion on the matter. Lindsay’s pharmacist metaphor is accurate, with a touch of Tim Burton’s sense of quirky humour. On sommelier exam techniques and tips, Lindsay credits her friends and study groups for their help and assistance, citing peer support one of the cardinal pillars that underpins and evolves the profession of sommelier. “But the pursuit is a lonely journey,” Lindsey added emphatically. She had distanced herself and stayed away from friends and families during the last stage of preparation, so to find her internal zen and calmness through isolation. Going through the examination itself is an exhilarating experience, as you are given more or less half an hour’s time to show people what you’ve got after years of preparation. Those moments overwhelm one too many brightest individuals with tsunamis of stress and anxiety. To Lindsey, the trick’s all in the mind. “It’s always about fun, walk in there and don’t be terrified, be ready to take it down and show them what you got,” she waxed lyrically, “…make it fun for the people testing you, and for yourself too.”

Master Sommelier results announcement differs from the practice at more junior levels of examinations. Candidates are individually led to different locations within the complex by the examiners and be informed separately whether they’ve made the mark. Lindsey was brought to the corner of a function room where she was told that she passed this gruelling examination. There were no overjoyed tears, no angry throw of chairs, no pants stripping (these bizarre behaviours have all allegedly happened in the past). It was pure happiness, it felt like her graduating from college once more, it was “the world is her oyster” kind of moment. Lindsey spared no tears for that life-changing moment, knowing full well that she has already shed enough tears on the way. Now a one-month-old Master Sommelier, Lindsey is busy reorganising her career and life objectives, ready and excited to embrace changes and opportunities yet to come her way. What remains unchanged is her willingness to share her passion and knowledge of wine. “I am never unapproachable”, Lindsey serenely remarked.

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Picture (above): Lindsey Whipple receiving her Master Sommelier pin after years of hard work
Picture (below): Lindsey Whipple Master Sommelier

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